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Paneth cells

Paneth cells are specialized secretory epithelial cells located at the bases of intestinal crypts (crypts of LieberkŸhn) (Porter et al, 2002). These cells are sometimes being referred to as Davidoff's cells (Davidov's cells).

Paneth cells, together with enterocytes, enteroendocrine cells, and goblet cells make up the four principal cell types of the mouse small intestinal epithelium (Wright, 2000. These four cell types are thought to be derived from one multipotent stem cell. Yang et al (2001) have reported that knock-out mice lacking Math1, a basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factor expressed in the gut, leads to depletion of goblet cells, enteroendocrine cells, and Paneth cells without affecting enterocytes. Secretory cells (goblet cells, enteroendocrine cells, and Paneth cells) thus may arise from a common progenitor that expresses Math1, whereas absorptive cells (enterocytes) arise from a progenitor that is Math1-independent.

Paneth cells release a variety of antimicrobial substances (lysozyme, intestinal phospholipase A2, defensins, cryptdins) from cytoplasmic granules in response to a range of stimuli and affect luminal microbial ecology. These cells, therefore, play an important role in intestinal defense mechanisms against micro-organisms (Ouellette, 1999; Keshav et al, 2006). Stappenbeck et al (2002) have reported studies with transgenic mice lacking Paneth cells. They have suggested that microbes colonizing a mucosal surface participate in regulating intestinal angiogenesis during postnatal development via Paneth cells.

Paneth cells have been shown to possess the capacity to express the proteins listed below. Please note the following general observations, which practically apply to all cell types: expression may be influenced by tissue localization, may occur only in discrete subpopulations of cells, may vary between established cell lines, primary cells, embryonic cells, mature cells, fully differentiated cells, activated cells, non-activated cells or growth conditions (confluent vs. sparse cultures), may be influenced by various disease states (including cancer environment), and may differ between species.
Note also: expression profile information lists entities only for which there is an entry in COPE or one of its subdictionaries.

The meaning of and „„ is as follows: factor/protein is expressed; „„ receptor (or, in some instances, binding sites) for this factor/protein is expressed. For further explanations concerning format, "hidden" information, and/or ambiguities see my remarks in the entry cell types.

angiogenin-4 (Ang-4; Rnase5d, ribonuclease A family 5d) (Hooper et al, 2003; Steenwinckel et al, 2009)

CD1 (CD1a, T6, Leu6, R4, HTA1, human thymocyte antigen-1, NA1/34) (Lacasse and Martin, 1992)
CD1d (R3, R3G1, Ly38, CD1d1, CD1.1, CD1d2, CD1.2) (Monzon-Casanova E et al, 2010)
CD15 (3-FAL, 3-Fucosyl-N-Acetyllactosamine, 3-FL, 3-Fucosyl-lactosamine, 80H.5, AGF 4.48, C3D-1, DAKO-M1, ELFT, ELAM-1 ligand fucosyltransferase, FAL, Fucosyl-N-Acetyllactosamine, 3-alpha-fucosyl-N-acetyl-lactosamine, FCT3A, alpha-3-fucosyltransferase, FUC-T-IV, fucosyltransferase 4, FUT-4, fucosyltransferase 4, LeuM1, LeX, Lewis X, X-hapten, hapten X, X-determinant, LNF-3, lacto-N-fucopentaose 3, LNFP-3, Lacto-N-Fucopentose 3 ceramide, MMA, My-1, myeloid-associated surface antigen, PMN7, polymorphonuclear leukocyte antigen 7, SSEA-1, stage-specific embryonic antigen-1) (Ariza et al, 1996; Gorbunov and Kiang, 2009)
CD44 (CDw44, CD44H, CD44A, CD44s, CD44st, CD44std, AnWj blood group antigen, ECMR-3, extracellular matrix receptor-3, class 3 ECMR, gp85, HCAM, homing-associated cell adhesion molecule, Hermes-1, Hermes antigen, HUTCH-1, Indian blood group antigen, In blood group antigen, Ly24, MC56, MDU2, MDU3, MIC4, MUC 2-63, OX49, PGP1, PGP1.1, phagocytic glycoprotein-1, GM35 antigen) (Mirecka et al, 1995)
Collectin-11 (COLEC11, CL-11, collectin kidney protein 1, CL-K1) (Motomura et al, 2008)
CD175s (Sialyl-Tn) ligand (Kushima et al, 1993)
Cryptdin-2 (defensin-related cryptdin-6/12, defensin-related cryptdin-6, defensin-related cryptdin-12, Defcr6, Defcr12) (Mastroianni and Ouellette, 2009)
Cryptdin-3 (defensin-related cryptdin peptide-3, Defcr3) (Mastroianni and Ouellette, 2009; Ouellette AJ et al, 2000)
Cryptdin-4 (defensin-related cryptdin peptide-4, defensin-related cryptdin peptide-20, Defcr4, Defcr20) (Mastroianni and Ouellette, 2009; Ouellette AJ et al, 2000; Darmoul D et al, 1997)
Cryptdin-5 (defensin-related cryptdin peptide-5, Defcr5) (Mastroianni and Ouellette, 2009; Darmoul D et al, 1997)
Cryptdin-6 (Mastroianni and Ouellette, 2009; Ouellette AJ et al, 2000; Darmoul D et al, 1997)
cryptdins (Selstedt et al, 1992l Karlsson et al, 2008)

defensin-alpha-1 (Defensin-1, Alpha-Defensin-1, HNP-1, human neutrophil peptide-1, HP-1, DEFA1, MRS, myeloid-related sequence, Cryptdin-1, defensin-related cryptdin peptide, Defcr, defensin-related cryptdin peptide-1, Defcr1, AURA28, augmented in rheumatoid arthritis 28) (Mastroianni and Ouellette, 2009; Chen C et al, 2009; Ouellette AJ et al, 2000)
defensin-alpha-5 (HD-5, defensin-5, alpha-Defensin-5) (Salzman et al, 2003; Cunliffe et al, 2001; Condon et al, 1999; Porter et al, 1997; Elphick et al, 2008; Noble CL et al, 2008; Koslowski MJ et al, 2010; Wehkamp J and Stange EF, 2010; Zhao C et al, 1996; Zilbauer et al, 2011; Ciccia et al, 2010)
defensin-alpha-6 (defensin-6, HD-6, DEFA6, DEF6) (Jones and Bevins, 1993; Noble CL et al, 2008; Koslowski MJ et al, 2010; Wehkamp J and Stange EF, 2010; Zhao C et al, 1996; Zilbauer et al, 2011)
Defensins (Alpha-Defensins) (Ayabe et al, 2000; Ouellette et al, 2000; Karlsson et al, 2008)
DMBT1 (deleted in malignant brain tumors 1, gp300, Glycoprotein 300; GP340, Glycoprotein 340; lung glycoprotein 340; Surfactant pulmonary-associated D-binding protein; SAG, Salivary agglutinin; CRP-ductin, CRP-alpha, CRP-beta, CRP-ductin alpha, CRP-ductin beta; Crpd; ebnerin; Hensin, muclin, Mucin-like glycoprotein, Apactin, vomeroglandin) (Renner et al, 2007)

EGF (epidermal growth factor, EGF-URO, HMGF, human milk growth factor, PGF, prostatic growth factor, beta-Urogastrone, URO, URG, Urogastrone, tooth-lid factor) (Bulow et al, 1988; Raaberg et al, 1988; Poulsen et al, 1986)
enhancing factor (Mulherkar et al, 1993)

FAS ligand (FASL, FASLG, APT1LG1, apoptosis antigen ligand 1, CD95 ligand, CD95L, APO-1 ligand, APTL, Apoptosis antigen ligand, TNF ligand superfamily member 6, TNFSF6, CD178) (Moller et al, 1996)
„„ FCAMR (Fc fragment of IgA and IgM receptor; High affinity immunoglobulin alpha and immunoglobulin mu Fc receptor, Fc alpha/mu receptor, Fcalpha/muR, Fc alpha/microR, FKSG87, CD351) (Wang R et al, 2009)
FIZZ-2 (found in inflammatory zone-2, RELM-beta, resistin-like molecule-beta, RETNLB, resistin like beta, XCP3, ten-cysteine protein 3) (Barnes et al, 2007)
frizzled-5 (frizzled family receptor 5, FzD5, Fz5, C2orf31, chromosome 2 open reading frame 31; HFZ5) (van Es et al, 2005)

Guanylin (guanylate cyclase activator 2A, GUCA2, GUCA2A, GCAP1, guanylate cyclase activator 1, Guanylyl cyclase-activating protein 1 ) (Date et al, 1996)

hsp70 (heat shock protein 70) (Gorbunov and Kiang, 2009)

Intelectin (ITLN, Intelectin-1, ITLN1, HL-1, Endothelial lectin HL-1, XL-35, Omentin, lactoferrin receptor, LFR) (Komiya et al, 1998; Wrackmeyer et al, 2006)
ITF (intestinal trefoil factor, trefoil factor-3, TFF-3, hP1.B) (Taupin et al, 1996)

LBP (LPS binding protein, lipopolysaccharide-binding protein, BPIFD2, BPI fold containing family D member 2) (Hansen et al, 2009)
Lysozyme (LYZ, EC3.2.1.17, 1,4-beta-N-acetylmuramidase C) (Darmoul D et al, 1997)

M-CSF (macrophage colony stimulating factor, CSF-1, colony stimulating factor-1, CSF-HU, Urinary colony stimulating factor, MGF, macrophage growth factor, MGI-1M, macrophage-granulocyte inducer, op, osteopetrotic, toothless, tl, Lanimostim) (Ryan et al, 2001)
MMP-7 (matrix metalloproteinase-7, matrilysin, Matrilysin-1, PUMP, punctuated metalloproteinase, pump-1, putative metalloproteinase-1, matrin, EC3.4.24.23) (Wilson et al, 1999; Lopez-Boado et al, 2000; Husoy et al, 2004; Chen C et al, 2009; Darmoul D et al, 1997)

NALP1 (NACHT-LRR-PYD-containing protein-1, DEFCAP, death effector filament-forming CED4-like apoptosis protein, CARD7, caspase recruitment domain-containing protein-7, KIAA0926, NAC, nucleotide-binding domain and CARD containing protein, NLRP1, NLR family, pyrin-domain containing 1, CLR17.1) (Slavova N et al, 2010)
NALP7 (NACHT-LRR-PYD-containing protein-7, NLRP7, NLR family, pyrin-domain containing 7, PYPAF3, Pyrin-containing APAF-1-like protein 3, NOD12, Nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain protein 12; PAN7, PAAD and NACHT-containing protein 7) (Slavova N et al, 2010)
NALP8 (NACHT-LRR-PYD-containing protein-8, NLRP8, NLR family, pyrin-domain containing 8, NOD16, Nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain protein 16, PAN4, PAAD and NACHT-containing protein 4; CLR19.2) (Slavova N et al, 2010)
NALP11 (NACHT-LRR-PYD-containing protein-11, NLRP11, NLR family, pyrin-domain containing 11, NOD17, Nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain protein 17, PYPAF6, Pyrin-containing APAF-1-like protein 6, PAN10, PAAD and NACHT-containing protein 10) (Slavova N et al, 2010)
NOD2 (Nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain protein 2, CARD15, caspase recruitment domain-containing protein-15, NLRC2, NLR family, CARD domain containing 2, IBD1, inflammatory bowel disease 1, BLAU, CLR16.3) (Lala et al, 2003; Ogura et al, 2003)

prolactin (PRL, lactogenic hormone, lactotropin, lactotropic hormone, mammotropin, mammotropic hormone, luteotropic hormone, LTH, luteotropin) receptors (PRLR) (Garcia-Caballero et al, 1996)
PSTI (pancreatic secretory trypsin inhibitor, PSTI-1, pancreatic secretory trypsin inhibitor-1, SPINK1, serine protease inhibitor kazal-type 1, TATI, tumor-associated trypsin inhibitor, monitor peptide) (Bohe et al, 1986)

REG (regenerating gene, Regenerating protein, REG1, REG1A, REG-1-alpha, Regenerating protein 1-alpha, regenerating islet derived-1, Regenerating islet-derived protein 1-alpha, Pancreatic stone protein, PSPS, secretory pancreatic stone protein, Lithostathine, lithostathine-1-alpha, Lithostathine C, Pancreatic thread protein; Islet of Langerhans regenerating protein, Islet of Langerhans regenerating protein 1, ICRF, Islet cells regeneration factor, Protein-X) (Lechene de la Porte et al, 1986)
REG2 (regenerating islet derived-2, LC12, PAP-1, pancreatitis-associated protein-1, PAP, pancreatitis-associated protein, HIP/PAP, peptide 23, pancreatitis-associated thread protein, PATP) (Masciotra et al, 1995; Christa et al, 1996)
REG3B (REG3-beta, regenerating islet derived-3-beta) (Burger-van Paassen et al, 2012)
REG3G (regenerating islet-derived 3-gamma, REG3-gamma, PAP IB, pancreatitis-associated protein-1B) (Matsumoto et al, 2012; Karlsson et al, 2008; Burger-van Paassen et al, 2012; Kinnebrew et al, 2010)
RGMa (Repulsive guidance molecule A; RGM domain family member A) (Metzger et al, 2005)
RGMb (Repulsive guidance molecule B; RGM domain family member B; DRAGON; DRG11-responsive axonal guidance and outgrowth of neurite) (Metzger et al, 2005)
R-spondin-1 (R-spondin, Rspo, Rspo-1, roof plate-specific spondin, Cristin-3, cysteine-rich single thrombospondin domain-containing protein-3) (Zhao et al, 2007)

Scara5 (Scavenger receptor class A member 5, Tesr, testis expressed scavenger receptor, Scavenger receptor hlg, NET33) (Jiang Y et al, 2006)
SLPI (secretory leukocyte protease inhibitor, antileukoproteinase, BLPI, Bronchial leukocyte proteinase inhibitor, BMI bronchial mucus inhibitor, CUSI, cervical mucus inhibitor, HUSI-I, human seminal plasma inhibitor-I, MPI, Mucus proteinase inhibitor, seminal plasma inhibitor) (Bergenfeldt et al, 1996)

TGF-beta (transforming growth factor-beta, TGFB, B-TGF, Aqueous humor lymphocyte inhibitory activity, DIF, differentiation-inhibiting factor, EGI, epithelial cell-specific growth inhibitor; epithelial growth inhibitor, EIF, Epstein-Barr virus inducing factor, Epithelial cell growth inhibiting factor, G-TsF, glioma-derived T-cell suppressor factor, MDGF, milk-derived growth factor, MGF, milk growth factor, Polyergin, Simian BSC-1 cell growth inhibitor, SP factor, TCGF, transformed cell growth factor, TGI, tissue-derived growth inhibitor, TIF-1, tumor inducing factor-1) (Hauer-Jensen et al, 1998)
thioredoxin (TRX, TRX1, thioredoxin-1, TRX80, BSF-MP6, B-cell stimulating factor MP6, ADF, adult T-cell leukemia-derived factor) (Takaishi et al, 2003)
TNF-alpha (tumor necrosis factor-alpha, TNFSF2, TNF ligand superfamily member 2, Cachectin, CF, cytotoxic factor, CTX, cytotoxin, DIF, differentiation inducing factor, EP, endogenous pyrogens, Hemorrhagic factor, Macrophage-derived cytotoxic factor, J774-derived cytotoxic factor, MCF, macrophage cytotoxic factor, MCT, macrophage cytotoxin, MD-FGF, monocyte-derived fibroblast growth factor, PCF, peritoneal cytotoxic factor, RCF, Released cytotoxic factor) (Tan et al, 2003; Keshav et al, 1990; Seno et al, 2002; Beil et al, 1995)

For related information of interest see also: Cell types, Cell lines in Cytokine Research, Cell culture.

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