COPE Media Kit


Cope Home
Previous entry:
upsilon cells
Next entry:
upstream caspases
Random entry:
phasic ganglion cells
Search COPE:

upstream

This term has two meanings. In molecular biology it refers to sites or directions when moving along a nucleic acid sequence; upstream of where you are then means further into the direction of the 5' end of the nucleic acid molecule (promoter sequences, for example, lie upstream of coding sequences). The reverse is downstream, meaning into the direction of the 3' end of a molecule.

In research on cytokines the term upstream is used often within the context of a linear sequence of signal transduction pathway steps. Events begin by binding of a ligand to a cell surface receptor which then elicits a cascade of second messenger pathways and culminates in the modulation of gene expression by transcription factors. In this hierarchy of events the term upstream refers to events that from a given point are further up the hierarchy. ... ... ... ... ... Subscribe to continue reading! ... ...

 

Content view restricted !

COPE - with 54500+ entries the most comprehensive cell-to-cell communication knowledge base

Extensive In-depth and In Context Information covering terminology, nomenclature, concepts, strategies & complexities of cellular communication, including Acute phase proteins | Angiogenesis | Antimicrobial & host defense peptides | Apoptosis & other forms of cell death | CD antigens | Cell lines | Cell reprogramming | Chemokines | Cryptides | Cytokines & Growth factors | CytokineTopics | Eukaryotic cell types & expression profiles | Hematopoiesis | Hormones | Inflamation & inflammatory mediators | Innate Immunity | Metalloproteinases | Microvesicles / Microparticles | Moonlighting proteins & cryptides | Neuropeptides | Non-coding RNAs | Pathogenicity & Virulence Factors | Pattern recognition receptors | Peptide sequences | Protein domains | Regulatory peptide factors | Viroceptors | Virokines and more.

Full COPEing for subscribers:

Access to Alphabet bar, Freetext search, Leafing/browsing functions, Internal Backlinking, Topic-specific introductions, Topic-specific integrated subdictionaries, Scientific references with PubMed links

with a 15 USD/month subscription at Cells-Talk.com

See example pages at the bottom of the Cells-Talk.com home page
THE SMART ONES COPE
The others just sisyphos around

 

Copyright © 1997-2021. All rights reserved by Dr H Ibelgaufts, the author of COPE - Cytokines & Cells Online Pathfinder Encyclopaedia

ENTRY LAST MODIFIED: June 2003



 
 
SUPPORT COPE | Intro | Subdictionaries | New Entries | Contribute data | COPE Credentials
# A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z

              Created, developed, and maintained by Dr H Ibelgaufts              
About the author of COPE
  |    Contact COPE   |    Terms & Conditions


U L T R A   P O S S E    N E M O   O B L I G A T U R



cope.cgi Version 1.41 [08.12.2020]. (c) JI. Powered by Perl 5.028001. key=52351