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Hammer toe

this spontaneous mouse mutant (gene symbol Hm) (Green, 1964) is characterized by highly penetrant webbing between digits without affecting digit numbers. Heterozygous (Hm/+) and homozygous (Hm/Hm) mutant mice have a broad big toe, fused interdigital soft tissues, reduced claws, an extra rudimentary postaxial digit, and camptodactyly (Kimura et al, 2008).

The mouse has defects in developmentally controlled cell death processes affecting digit individualization, i.e. the removal of excessive cells between digits during development. The Hammer toe mutant shows strongly reduced cell death only in the interdigital region of the limb (Zakeri et al, 1994). Ahuja et al (1997) have reported that exogenously administered retinoic acid enhances ... ... ... ... ... Subscribe to continue reading! ... ...


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